The Oneness of Humankind
Our Common Humanity
The Global Emergence of a Civil Society
By Frederick P Mallay MBA, CPA
Co Chair Global Justice And Peace at the Riverside Church, New York
My presentation will focus primarily on the sacred, idealistic, philosophical and religious writings of two great humanitarians, the lives and conduct of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the apostle of militant non-violence, the dreamer setting ideals for humanity, the doer, a drum major for freedom, justice and equality. I will also touch on many figures throughout history and other prominent disciples advocating peaceful, non-violence. These predecessors have motivated and inspired these two noble souls. Their bodies and souls radiate with several forms of energy, peace, love, joy and sharing.
I will examine the accomplishments of the non-violent movement, our current day heroes and heroines; our involvement in the endless struggles, sacrifices and challenges that lie ahead; our protest against corporate global repression and oppression.
Listen to the words of these personalities:
In Gandhis words: Non-cooperation with evil is as much a duty as cooperation with good. There comes a time when an individual becomes irresistible and his action becomes all-pervasive in its effect. This comes when he is reduced to zero. The most heinous and most cruel crimes of which history has record have been under the cover of religious and equally noble motives. The Truth is that God is the Force. He is the essence of life. He is the pure and undefiled consciousness. A man who throws himself on God ceases to fear man. Truth is God and God is Truth. When I admire the wonder of sunset or the beauty of the moon, my soul expands in worship of the Creator.
Emma Goldman says, Life without a spiritual ideal is a spiritual death. To the daring belongs the future.
Malcolm X notes, A man who stands for nothing will fall on anything.
And Thomas Carlyle observed, The ideal is thy self. The impediment too is also in thy self.
Principles of Non-Violence
Non-violence is a philosophy of life and is a method of protest. Non-violence is an active and coercive form of resistance to evil. Non-violence does not mean weak submission to the will of the evildoer. Gandhi and King espoused the principles of non-violence and love to oppressed peoples in their struggle for freedom. These are powerful, militant and persuasive methods to achieve social and economic reforms. The power of non-violence is to unbalance the will of the tyrant. The principles of non-violence permeate civil, social, religious and political movements. They are on the side of the oppressed working class, the poor, the disenfranchised, and the voiceless.
Oscar Wilde says, Disobedience, in the eyes of anyone who has read history, is mans original virtue. It is through disobedience that progress has been made
through disobedience and through rebellion. Howard Zinn says In Failure to Quit, Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience. Our problem is that numbers of people all over the world have obeyed the dictates of the leaders of their government and have gone to war and millions have been killed because of obedience.
Non-violence is peaceful civil disobedience to injustices and oppression. It means boycotts, strikes, marches and mass civil disobedience. It is a potent force to combat the re-manifestation of injustice in subtler unrecognizable undertones.
The non-violent movement is not a new phenomenon in America. Many prominent whites, Blacks, Jews, religious organizations, the Quakers, the movement against slavery, and many civic and political organizations have advocated it. The American Henry David Thoreau in On the Duty of Civil Disobedience wrote, One has a moral obligation to refuse to cooperate with an unjust social system. Theologian, Rheinhold Niebuhr suggested in Moral Man and Immoral Society that non-violent action could be effective in accomplishing black emancipation. In 1936, Gandhi also suggested the same.
Thomas Jefferson said that, Disobedience to tyrants is obedience to God. We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men [and all women] are created equal. Abraham Lincoln said, This nation cannot survive half slave and half free. John Banyan lamented, I will stay in jail to the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience.
Before the beginning of the war on Iraq journalist Patrick E. Tyler wrote that the world has now two super powers in a post cold war era: the global world of public opinion and the unparalleled super military economic might of the USA.
All of the elements of the various non-violent movements are embedded in the world of public opinion. Non-violence is an ever-present force reinvigorated over hundreds of years. It challenges the basic underlying assumptions in our society that lead to injustices. The right to dissent against the unexamined norms is a part of the non-violent movement. It challenges the status quo that furthers the interests of special interest groups, lobbyists and conglomerates. This movement has achieved worldwide prominence first in India and subsequently in the Civil Rights struggles for African-Americans (and for all Americans in the words of Martin Luther King,
until the individual of all races in the USA achieve human rights). This is consonant with the general view of Jane Addams: The good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain
until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our life.
The Great Soul, Mahatma Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, formed the non-violent movement in India, primarily to challenge British imperial might. Author Richard Attenborough wrote, In an age of empire and military might, he proved that the powerless had power and that the force of arms would not forever prevail against the force of spirit.
The great American Henry David Thoreau, Civil Rights leader, influenced Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhis work in turn greatly influenced the Civil Rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. traveled to India, as an apostle, to study the methodologies and modalities of non-violence. Gandhi, the Father of Nation of India, and King, the moral leader of this Nation, orchestrated dramatic confrontations with their adversaries.
They share many commonalities. They lived by their deeds. Their message is inspiring. We must face the historical facts of who we are and what we are. Then we must advance beyond the limits imposed by our former masters and our oppressors.
Frantz Fanon tells us, Every generation out of relative obscurity must find it own mission and either fulfill or betray it.
We must make things happen not only for us but also for the other people of the world. We must pay equal attention to others. We cannot be happy as long as there are peoples in the world who are in despair, who are suffering, hurting so badly, starving, with no resources, especially peoples of color. We must fight for the rights of everybody in the world to have that same equality that we enjoy. We must live in a world where all of us feel safe, secure and all of us have a future. The conviction of these great souls impacted the lives of billions. It influenced the peoples democratically elected leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkhrmah, and Cheddi Jagan.
Kwame Nkrumah said, The people, the body and the soul of the nation, the final sanctity of political decisions, and the inheritors of sovereignty, can be fooled for only so long.
Ahimsa and Satyagraha
Mahatma Gandhi, one of the Great Souls, advocated the principles of Ahimsa and Satyagraha non-violence, non co-operation, truth telling and firmness. The Sanskrit word ahimsa is at the foundation of satyagraha. It literally means lacking any desire to kill. This is considered to be the natural state of the human spirit. It is a state in which no violence of thought or action exists. The principle of Ahimsa, of non-violence, is hurt by every evil thought, by undue haste, by lying, by hatred, by wishing ill to anybody. It is also violated by our holding on to what the world needs. Truth (satya) implies love and firmness. Truth always leads to optimism. Force is agraha. The Indian movement called satyagraha is the force that is born through the processes of self purification, of love, of truth and non-violence. Gandhi said, Truth is God and God is truth. The truth is that God is the force. He is the essence of life. He is pure and undefiled consciousness. He is eternal. The force generated by non-violence is infinitely greater than the force of all the arms invented by mans ingenuity. Non-violence succeeds only when we have a real living faith in God. God alone is immortal, imperishable. I believe in God, not only as a theory but also as a fact more real than that of life itself. Non-violence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapons of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man.
Non-violence is a dimension of our selfhood. It is about incorporating humanistic humanitarian values into our social, spiritual and economic systems. Virtue is its own reward. Gandhi asked, What is faith worth if it is not translated into action? It is about our brotherhood and sisterhood, the histories and humanities of other innocent lives; about the necessity of helping others and of our camaraderie. It stresses that all issues are inextricably inter-dependent. It is about our freedom and our humanity.
Freedom is a fragile thing and is never more than a generation away from extinction, Ronald Reagan. The cause of liberty becomes a machinery, if the price to be paid is the wholesome destruction of those who enjoy liberty, said Gandhi. So the domestic and global convergence of our interests must both transform our energies for the better. We cannot be generous out of self-interest.
Non-violence emphasizes truth telling. Lets contrast this to what the Nazi Herman Goering said at the Nuremberg Trials 04/18/46: People can be brought to the bidding of their leaders
all you have to do, is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for a lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.
Truth is not about bribes, threats, intimidation, name-your-price, of creating an external enemy. It is not about living in a paralysis of engineered fear with coded words; and is not of the virtues of us versus them. It is not about any means necessary. It is not about lies upon lies, deceit upon deceit; it is not doing all you can to intimidate someone. Deception is the opposite of truth telling. The following quote by J Edgar Hoover confirmed what Mark Twain referred to as "soothing falsities and the process of grotesque self deception". If I told what I really know, it would be very dangerous to the country. Our whole system could be disrupted. Justice is incidental to law and order, J. Edgar Hoover.
The Russian dissident Alexander Solzhenitsyn once said, In our country, to lie has become not just a moral category but a pillar of the state. John Adams admonished, The only maxim of a free government ought to be: trust no man living with power to endanger public liberty. Leon Trotsky pessimistically bemoaned, Government is an association of men who do violence to the rest of us. And J.F. Stone similarly states, Each government is run by liars and nothing they say should be believed.
Non-violence is not about being afraid to step out and tell the truth when faced with official ethical dilemmas. Let us do the right thing and others will eventually come forward. Ex-CIA officials David Mac Michael and Ray McGovern, with over 27 years of service, have formed Veterans Intelligence Professionals for Sanity. They are telling the truth about US foreign policy and the US-UK invasion of Iraq. Truth is about freedom to dissent, so sacred and so fundamental to our democratic process. Truth is about saying, Hey, you took us for a ride; you have muzzled us and we self muzzled ourselves. It is about asserting the logical; it is not about pathological deceptions and ideological extremism. Truth is about when our lives, our sufferings, our deprivations tell them the truth. Do we remember the phrase: The Reagan Elder Bush crazies are apparently back?
Karma and Dharma
Gandhis spirituality is deeply rooted in the twin pillars of Hinduism, i.e., Karma and Dharma. Karma means action, and also the consequences of action. What you do is of little significance. But it is very important that you do it. Every act we make, and every thought, and every desire we have, shapes our future experiences. Our life is what we make of it. And we ourselves are shaped by what we have done. Gandhi said, As a man acts so has he become
a man becomes pure through pure deeds
impure through impure deeds. Not only do we reap in this life what we have sown, but what we have sown also follows us after physical death affecting our next reincarnation. It is action and reaction, cause and effect.
Dharma is righteousness, duty, religion; the natural moral order of things which determine a persons duty. Gandhi believed in the central core messages of all religions. He states, Religions are different roads converging upon the same point. What does it matter that we take different roads so long as we reach the same goal? The Bible is as much of a book of religion with me as is the Gita and the Koran.
In the midst of injustice, non-violence seeks to promote a healthy discourse. It seeks to promote an effective dialogue bringing us together instead of splitting us, not poisoning the well of public discourse, not promoting anger and meanness in the political discourse, not rattling the cages of discord and discontent. Gandhi advocated total independence and self-reliance. We must all be producers. If there is enough stuff to go around, people will be freed. His philosophy is about creating a new internationalism; distributing according to some ideal need. It is not about transnational corporations artificial creation of scarcity of supply. Nothing happens in the world that doesnt impact and affect the livelihood of others in this global economy. To those who are incredibly wealthy we must say that you are wealthy because you have stolen the resources of others, depriving them of their basic comfort and necessities. Beyond our shores there are millions who are mad at the international conglomerates and at the corporate domination of their lives. Gandhis simple maxim is: Become the change we want to see in the world.
Non-violence is about undergoing a transformation; of freedom from worry and pain, about dedicating ourselves to the things of the mind, of creative will; of deeds; of creative consciousness; and not of a diminished inner life.
On the sanctity of all life, Gandhi put in plain words, I do believe that all Gods creatures have the right to live as much as we have. I want to realize identity with all life even with such beings as crawl on earth. Yes! He is a visionary; he is thinking out of the box. He was ahead of his time mostly from a scientific and technological perspective.
All Life Is Interconnected
Scientific advances are digging through our preconceptions to get at reality. We share ninety percent of our genes with other species. Our basic cells are a continuation of multiple organisms. Organism differs by type. There are so many advances about our human adaptation: our variations and our continuum of variations. All living things share parts of the same blueprint, the same common features. Our DNA is similar to the DNA of other species. The sequencing of our genes and the sequencing of the genes of microbes are similar. There are advances in tracing the ages of various species. Radio Carbon dating is tracing the lives of extinct creatures that lived over 25,000 years ago. Science is exploring the possibilities of interbreeding. Are we largely built from the inventions of other species, including microbes? As we learn about the inner workings of our body, we are also learning about our correlation with the inner workings of the other species. Inside our bodies, we are the same, on the molecular and the genetic levels, with the same cellular functions and structures as with all other living things. All living things have common metabolic and reproductive processes. They store information and energy in the identical type of chemicals. Every cell needs nutrients and environments specifically suited to its metabolic needs and survival.
Life began as a series of chemical reactions in the ocean over four billion years ago. We are now learning about our life on earth from a different perspective. We will never view ourselves as a species apart. We are religiously and culturally conditioned to think of ourselves as being apart. We are gaining a deeper understanding of ourselves and of our role: who we are, how we came here and how we fit in the environment in the overall scheme of things. We have evolved from the smallest viruses and microbes too small for the human eyes to see, to plants rooted in the ground, worms, and birds and to the larger creatures. We are all connected. We are exploring the chemicals in all cells and see that the similar needs in all of us manifest themselves as differences in our metabolism.
We are all citizens on this planet. All of humanity is a single interwoven family. We all depend on one another. We are dependent and inter-connected. Gandhi said, Interdependence is and ought to be as much the ideal of man as self sufficiency. Man is a social being. Without interrelation with society, he cannot realize his oneness with the universe or support his egoism.
We are in a violent world seeking a non-violent response to violence, militarism, and injustice, to the cultural proclivity to violence and of a violent people in a sacred land.
Justice and Equity
The focus of the non-violent movement is towards global economic democracy, justice, equity and friendship. The Bible says Let justice flow, roll down like waters and righteousness flow like an overflowing stream. Gandhi loved to sing the Christian Hymn: Lead, Kindly Light and to recite the Sermon on the Mount. He always carried the Quran and Bible when he studied law in UK. Gandhi did not espouse the doctrine of retributive justice. Gandhi recognized violence as the unending downward spiral for nations as well as for individuals. An eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind. Justice must be tempered by acts of mercy. Hatred can only be overcome by love. It is a more effective way to dry up the swamps of violence and inequality that breed terrorists. Even though he fought to rid his country of colonialism, violence and injustice, he always refused to label his adversaries as evil. Winston Churchill referred to him as a half naked fakir stirring up sedition, the same Winston Churchill who brought famine to 10 millions in the great famine of Bengal. To love those who are considered to be your enemies is the natural progression of ahimsa. Forgiveness is a virtue of the brave. So his enemy is also brother.
Gandhi and King were totally and unconditionally absorbed in the practices of non-violence. They shared everything in common proclaiming the power of love, justice, peace and freedom. Kings house was bombed on January 30 (1956) the anniversary of the assassination of Mahatma. His supporters wanted to resort to violence. Kings response: We must meet violence with non-violence. He who lives by the sword will perish by the sword. His message is one of love and forgiveness. When the people resorted to violence in Punjab in 1919, Gandhi stopped the protest. Until protesters are purged of hostility and hatred towards their oppressors; until they are willing... then the movement will degenerate into violence. He did the same when the British soldiers massacred 400 peaceful Indian protesters.
King also saw the interconnection of social, economic, political and religious intolerance. He clamored for calm and peace, Justice is indivisible
. Injustice anywhere is a threat to injustice everywhere
. We must combine the fervor of the Civil Rights movements with the peace movements
until the very foundations of our nation are shaken... to engage in civil disobedience to further arouse the conscience of the nation.
To the millions of non-violent protesters, Kings greatest speech was made at the Riverside Church in New York City on April 4, 1967 to a crowd of over 3,000. A time comes when silence is a betrayal
alleging that the Vietnam War was symptomatic of a malady within the American spirit
charging that United States Government was the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today. The US is on the wrong side of a world revolution against exploitation and oppression in Asia, Africa and South America. We must be either for non-violent co-existence or violent co-annihilation
in defeating the triple evils of racism, materialism and militarism. The nation must undergo a radical revolution of values, substituting a person-oriented society for a thing-oriented society.
The art of living is to control the positive consequences of your thoughts, to be totally free of the negative consequences of thoughts. Be the best possible.
Demonization, misconception, misinterpretation and stereotyping are replete in our culture; strong enough to create baseless hysteria. The alternative is simple. We must be the champions for one another. We must be a voice for the voiceless and the marginalized.
Gandhi portrayed a life of inclusiveness. We are one family, meaning the oneness of humankind, a common humanity; thus we are to realize the humanity in others. Two-thirds of the worlds population earn less than $2.00 a day. Fourteen million children die from preventable diseases. In any society, we find there are 20 percent affluent and 80 percent disadvantaged. We are rightly outraged at the emergence of the caste system that permeates the psyche of millions of Indians. The abominable caste system runs antithetical to the noble teachings of Hinduism, against the thoughts and aspirations of all peace loving peoples. It a weapon of exploitation. The Untouchables are called Harijans. Gandhi translated the word as Children of God. Most of Gandhis publications appeared in Harijan, The Children of God, and also in Young India. The counterpart of the caste system in America is the Klu Klux Klan in America. The followers believe in white supremacy and advocate separation of the races. They quote biblical references, and their reflections are on the super race, the German Aryan race. Their belief is that others are genetically inferior to Hitlers Aryan race. As we live in the Gandhian spirit, let us protest in all manner and activities against these demonizing manifestations. We, as his followers, should appear at the annual India Day Parade in New York City. We must prick and infuriate the soul of all Indians, especially the professional groups, to abolish the caste system. The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men [and women] to do nothing, said Edmund Burke.
Unsavory fringe elements always creep into any religious or liberation movements. Gandhi is against using religion as a club to bludgeon others; of using religion as a rationalization for violence, which is often a worldwide practice. There is always the virtuous us-versus-them syndrome. The Saints versus the barbarians. We have so much resources to face these challenges. Our resources can also be drawn from the pluralism of Islamic teachings, teachings of being the protector of peoples rights, of tolerance, accommodation and acceptance of people from different faiths, from religious and cultural diversity.
The underpinnings of the non-violence movement is to tell truth with passion, with conviction, without fear or favor. Truth is the strongest weapon in war. People cant change the truth, but the truth can change people. Truth is not under the guise of a series of coordinated lies from top down. The imperatives of truth telling is never relegated to a backseat against the ingrained passivity, docility and knee jerk deference to the titans of acquisitions, mergers and conglomeration, who are embedded within our Government. Its goal is the establishment of the beloved community with genuine and transparent love for everyone, each one! Every one! It is not an eye for an eye or a tooth for a tooth. It is not cloaking under the veneer of moral prudishness. It refuses to hate those who hate us. It seeks to throw off the yoke of corporate dominated globalization; of oppression and of the rapid escalation of monopolization of information with a rare paucity of alternate viewpoints. It seeks to promote peaceful coexisting alternatives. Peace is the fruit of justice and the consequence of love. In your light, oh God, we see the light. We will never be free as long as there are poor and oppressed people.
Globalization and Exploitation of Children
Frederick Mallay continues
Truth seeks to comfort the afflicted, and is on the side of the millions and millions of exploited workers worldwide. It is against the exploitation of children by US transnational corporations.
Gandhi would be so outraged at the current exploitation of the children of the earth by many US multi-national corporations. Millions of demonstrators worldwide will march to end child labor and sweatshop abuses. We can invoke the March on Washington spirit with pressures on the corporations in their marketplaces with protest, boycotts of goods and services.
We must support workers in their struggle for human rights. Workers rights must be protected in as much as goods are being protected. Corporations are always rolling back workers rights and lowering wages. They are never benevolent.
Business is imposing virtual slavery in the developing world. Business is creating a permanent underclass. In Mexico, over the past two years, more than 218,000 workers earning just $1.26 per hour in making auto parts have lost their jobs. They are now on the streets. Their crime is just earning $1.26. It is too high in the global economy! Many are living in cardboard huts. Now their jobs have been moved to Honduras. The wage rate there is 59 cents an hour; in Nicaragua 40 cents, in China 27 cents and in Bangladesh 5 cents an hour for every $17.99 Disney Shirt sewn.
We the people do have the power, the will and the unconditional commitment to abolish child labor in Honduras, in El Salvador, in Santo Domingo, in Thailand, in India, in China, in Bangladesh and wherever it exists. Let us take all measures necessary to do so. Look at the labels of the manufacturers and the manufacturing country and let us just dont buy.
Suffer the little children to come unto me. Do unto others, as you would have them do unto you. Would any decent minded American living in the most apparently religious Christian country in the world allow their children and grandchildren to be exploited? Young girls from the ages of 13 to 15 years are lured into monstrous sweatshops by USA offshore contractors. These girls, just beginning to feel the splendor of life, of love and friendship, are being lured to work behind barbed wire fenced factories, with the presence of employers goon squad and security people. The multi-national offshore corporations mantra is: At this age, they peak at eye and hand coordination. These children work from 7:30 AM to 6:00 PM, sometimes 23 hours when a big order comes in. Their skin becomes pale; their eyes become clouded. They are told not to go to drink water, not to use bathroom facilities. Frequently, they are told not to become pregnant. They are given birth control pills; they are given injections under the guise for malaria but intended to kill their unborn babies. When they reach 25 years, sick and tired people, people without any imagination, whose future are destroyed, who are never educated. They become tired of life...
Are we so comfortable with that knowledge that the system has created a permanent underclass? Calgacus sardonically remarked, To plunder, to slaughter, to steal, these things they misname empire; and where they make a desert, they call it peace. Many of us want to be in a state of denial. And the richest country America is the state of denial.
Life is a long road of injustices for these exploited children. They are so docile. They know their rights the least. How can we live in this world of injustice? Trans-national corporations go wherever there is cheap labor. It is part of the corporate agenda to pit young workers of the world against workers of the USA. We are pitted against each other to the race to the bottom the Bottom Line!
Who are behind this global exploitation? The latest invention to further suppress people is the creation of Free Trade Zones. Free Trade Zones is funded and promoted by our tax dollars. The effect on our children is that they are Zoned for Slavery. Free enterprise zones are funded by the US Agency for International Development. The Federal Agency has funneled billions of taxpayers money in creating Free Trade Zones. Foreign corporations import materials and equipment duty free and export finished goods at reduced tariffs. They pay no corporate tax; no income taxes. They provide little or no health benefits. They treat workers like slaves with no rights to organize. They pay their workers 57 cents an hour then reduce it to 33 cents with the threat of going elsewhere.
America had lost over 500,000 apparel jobs. It lost up to 28,000 jobs a year. The dilemma is loosing US jobs at one end (USA) and cant purchase at the other end where a worker is making 38 cents.
Our children in monstrous workshops are subsidizing the trillions of accumulated wealth in our capitalistic system. And yet we do nothing. Our deafening silence in the midst of our childrens exploitation will haunt us. How will our children and our grandchildren judge us!
The effects are already here, closer to home, not far out there. The chicken is coming home to roost.
Job losses in the USA are across the board. All sectors are on the chopping block in the name a faceless corporate greed. Skilled jobs in the USA are relentlessly outsourced to India, to China, and other places. American workers have paid over $40,000 to obtain their college degrees. Now their future is mortgaged on the altar of corporate greed.
All issues in the global economy are interrelated. The unprecedented mobilization of 15 million worldwide, who rallied against the war on Iraq, consisted of many who are seeking a non-violent response in a world awash in brutality; against the military might of one nation which is able to instantly obliterate the defenseless and the voiceless. We live in a world where there is inequity, injustice and an ever-expanding working class poor.
The principles of non-violence are the underlying current in many movements. The global anti-war rally is not an end in itself. The free peoples of the world have won. The people of the world have prevented the UN from endorsing the invasion of Iraq. The invasion of Iraq was committed primarily by the US and by UK. Our first success is a part of a long-term struggle. Our struggles noble ends are inherent in its non-violent means. Out of this March, many other as of yet unchallenged issues, are now resurfacing. The genie is out of the bottle. There is a global outrage against trade liberalization as currently practiced and corporate globalization, the roles of the World Bank and the IMF. The structural adjustments of these institutions force and coerce state governments to sell off the trillions of state owned assets, taking the wealth of the poor and placing in the hands of global corporations via Free Enterprise Zones. Partnerships of the local elites in concert with the worldwide corporate elites use bribes, corruption, kickbacks, intimidation, threats and disappearances, violating the democratic human rights of all the peoples in the world. We must reassess the dynamics and chart our course. Why is globalization not based on democratic decision-making made by elected national governments, local and tribal competent legal community groups? If it so executed, then it would create more freedom of interaction, more positive ideas, and a cohesion based on universal solidarity. The current reality suggests the opposite.
We are passive and docile, not yet fully energized. We view democracy as a work in progress.
© Copyright. GuyanaJournal